Authors: Victoria Haldane , Chuan De Foo 2,9, Salma M. Abdalla3,4,9, Anne-Sophie Jung5,9, Melisa Tan2, Shishi Wu, Alvin Chua, Monica Verma, Pami Shrestha, Sudhvir Singh, Tristana Perez, See Mieng Tan, Michael Bartos, Shunsuke Mabuchi, Mathias Bonk, Christine McNab, George K. Werner, Raj Panjabi, Anders Nordström and Helena Legido-Quigley.
ABSTRACT: Health systems resilience is key to learning lessons from country responses to crises such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this perspective, we review COVID-19 responses in 28 countries using a new health systems resilience framework. Through a combination of literature review, national government submissions and interviews with experts, we conducted a comparative analysis of national responses. We report on domains addressing governance and financing, health workforce, medical products and technologies, public health functions, health service delivery and community engagement to prevent and mitigate the spread of COVID-19. We then synthesize four salient elements that underlie highly effective national responses and offer recommendations toward strengthening health systems resilience globally.